There have been renewed calls to gun control after the school shooting in Uvalde (Texas). Reform will be difficult due to both old and new obstacles.

A similar tragedy occurred at Uvalde elementary school, Texas, almost a decade after Sandy Hook Elementary School in Connecticut was attacked and shot to death 26 people, 20 of them children.

Sandy Hook’s shooting led to calls for national gun reform, and prompted President Barack Obama to make an emotional appeal for his support. However, Congress has not been able to move gun-control legislation forward.

Following the deaths of 19 children in Uvalde and two adults, there is a similar call for national politicians to take action. In pleading for change, President Joe Biden joined Mr Obama.

“Why aren’t we prepared to live with such carnage?” He said. “Why are we allowing this to happen?” he asked. “Where in God’s name can we find our backbone to face it head-on and resist the lobbies?

Despite Democrats controlling both the chambers of Congress as well as the presidency, attempts to pass gun-control regulations face similar challenges. Some may even be more difficult.

Let’s take a look at the possible actions and obstacles that they might face.

A majority of US senators supported legislation that required expanded background checks for gun purchase in the weeks following Sandy Hook. Filibuster is a parliamentary procedure that requires at minimum 60 votes in the 100-seat Senate for most legislation to be passed. However, a simple majority was not sufficient.

Only a few of the 50 Republican senators are open to any new gun legislation today, which suggests that any other efforts will face a similar fate.

However, this has not stopped Democrats from exploring new ideas and offering to collaborate with Republicans to find common ground.

On Thursday, Democratic Senate Majority Leader Chuck Schumer stated that he believes it is a slim prospect. “We’ve been burned so many times before.”

The only Republican-backed proposal has been to create an national database of safety practices in schools.

However, conversations about doing more have started and some Republicans have participated. The most popular proposals include a “red-flag” law to prevent people with mental illness and criminal records from buying firearms, as well as expanded background checks for gun buyers that would include private sales.